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A Comprehensive Guide to Calculating Your Investments

Managing your money and creating financial stability involves a significant focus on investing. Whether you’re new to the world of investments or have seasoned experience, it’s vital to grasp the intricacies of calculating and evaluating your investments. In this guide, we’ll provide you with a comprehensive overview to assist you in navigating the complexities of investment calculations, all while keeping a keen eye on your money spreadsheet.

1. Return on Investment (ROI):

Formula: ROI = [(Current Value of Investment – Cost of Investment) / Cost of Investment] * 100

Purpose: Measures the profitability of an investment relative to its cost.

2. Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR):

Formula: CAGR = (Ending Value / Beginning Value) ^ (1/n) – 1

Purpose: Provides the smoothed annual rate of growth of an investment over a specified time period.

3. Dollar-Cost Averaging (DCA):

Formula: Regularly investing a fixed amount over time.

Purpose: Mitigates the impact of market volatility by spreading investment purchases across different market conditions.

4. Asset Allocation:

Formula: Percentage allocation to different asset classes (e.g., stocks, bonds, real estate).

Purpose: Diversifies risk and aligns investments with financial goals and risk tolerance.

5. Dividend Yield:

Formula: Dividend Yield = (Annual Dividends per Share / Price per Share) * 100

Purpose: Measures the income generated by an investment through dividends.

6. Earnings per Share (EPS):

Formula: EPS = (Net Income – Dividends on Preferred Stock) / Average Outstanding Shares

Purpose: Evaluates a company’s profitability and its ability to distribute profits to shareholders.

7. Price-to-Earnings (P/E) Ratio:

Formula: P/E Ratio = Price per Share / Earnings per Share

Purpose: Assesses the valuation of a stock relative to its earnings.

8. Risk-Adjusted Return:

Formula: Risk-Adjusted Return = (Return on Investment – Risk-Free Rate) / Standard Deviation of the Investment

Purpose: Evaluates the return of an investment relative to its risk.

9. Sharpe Ratio:

Formula: Sharpe Ratio = (Portfolio Return – Risk-Free Rate) / Portfolio Standard Deviation

Purpose: Measures the risk-adjusted performance of an investment portfolio.

10. Future Value (FV) and Present Value (PV):

Formula: FV = PV * (1 + r)^n (for compounding)

PV = FV / (1 + r)^n (for discounting)

Purpose: Calculates the future or present value of an investment based on a specified interest rate and time period.

11. Tax-adjusted Returns:

Consideration: Factor in taxes on capital gains, dividends, and interest to determine the after-tax returns.

12. Inflation Adjustments:

Consideration: Account for inflation to assess the real (inflation-adjusted) returns of an investment.

Investors should tailor their calculations based on their unique financial goals, risk tolerance, and the specific characteristics of their investments. Regularly reviewing and adjusting these calculations can contribute to a more successful and informed investment strategy.

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